Last updated March 2024

Information to Authors

A Peer Reviewed Journal

Information to Authors
and Guidance for Reviewers

submitted to &

Any manuscript that does not conform to the guidelines and referencing style of AJFAND will be returned to the author with no comments

*Attach the checklist when submitting your manuscript*

AJFAND Processing Fee Policy

In order to maintain a secretariat and the costs associated with production (online hosting and communication), AJFAND charges article processing fees, but only once an article has been accepted for publication having passed the review process. This is so that editorial decisions are not influenced by ability (or inability) to pay. The fee is $750 per article. AJFAND extends rebates in certain circumstances at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief.

Ethical Considerations
Any author whose manuscript is associated with a study on humans must supply evidence that the appropriate Ethics Committee was satisfied and approved the study. The study itself must provide information in detail on how  consent was sought and received from the study subjects of their caregivers in the case of children.

The African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development (AJFAND) is a peer reviewed scholarly journal. The journal is envisaged to enable dissemination and sharing of food and nutrition information issues on the continent. It taps social science, biochemical, food and nutrition related research and information. It also addresses issues related to agriculture, food security, and nutrition that affect Africa’s development and people’s livelihoods. It targets and is intended to serve the research and intellectual community; African and international non-governmental organizations (NGOs); African and development oriented bilateral and multilateral agencies; and African public institutions working towards solving food and nutrition problems through sound policies, and addressing issues that affect the African continent. AJFAND is open to both African and non-African contributors. Besides academic research, the journal provides an avenue for sharing information on national-level food and nutrition programs. QUALITY remains the driver of our efforts and not QUANTITY. The journal carries out a major mentoring and capacity building role for budding African scholars, and also gives visibility to African scholars in general by highlighting and sharing their work internationally.

The journal is accessible in full, on the internet at in English. Announcements of relevant upcoming events are shared when sent in time. We also welcome appropriate advertisements as a way of generating income to cover running costs.

Manuscripts for peer review will be accepted for consideration on condition that they are submitted exclusively to the African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development (AJFAND). All materials submitted for publication must be typed in double line space on numbered pages and should conform to the uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals [1]. A word count excluding abstracts and references must be given in all submissions. Manuscripts must be submitted electronically ONLY [as MS Word document attachment] via email. Every author should be prepared to submit a copy of his or her passport- size photograph electronically (via email) as attachments. The photos should be of a good resolution. Authors to also indicate their ORCID number on the (cover page) on submission.

The corresponding author should email a consent letter to the Editor-in-Chief before the manuscript goes for publication. The corresponding author should ensure that the details of the co-authors are provided as follows: names, qualifications, designation and current address(es) including email. Credit for authorship requires substantial contributions to: (a) conception and design, or analysis and interpretation of data (b) the drafting of the article or critical revision for important intellectual content and (c) final approval of the version to be published. Please note that only electronic correspondence will be responded to.

Copies of related papers already published and any non-standard questionnaires used should be submitted. This requirement is important where details of study methods are published elsewhere or when the manuscript is part of a series e.g. part 2 of a series where part 1 has been published elsewhere.


Title page: This page will have the title of the paper; which is brief, reflects the contents of the paper and relevant to AJFAND topics. This page will also have complete author(s) name(s) and institutional affiliation.

Abstract: An abstract of between 300-400 words must be included. For French speaking authors who may not wish to translate their entire paper into English, we require 2 abstracts- one in English and another in French. The paper can be in French. For Short communications and Letters to the editor, the abstract should be in prose form. Key words should be between 8 and 10 and added at the bottom of the abstract in reviews and original articles.

Main body: Word count should be between 3000 and 4000 words for original articles and reviews. Short communication word count should not exceed 1000 words, and Letters to the editor should not exceed 500 words. Original articles should present data and information from original research. Reviews must be critical analyses of the subjects reviewed, giving the current and balanced view of all the issues, for instance controversies. Reviews should be contributed by authorities and experts in their respective fields. The message carried in both reviews and original articles must be clear, succinct and of significance. Short communications should focus on any interesting findings/news an author wishes to convey to the readers of AJFAND.

The main body should have separate and clearly marked subtitles: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation for Development (must be included), Acknowledgements (where necessary; include sponsor of the study) and References. Results and Discussion should be combined. Include any recommendations in the Conclusion.

Figures, Tables and Illustrations: Original articles should have a maximum of eight tables at the end of the text with the table heading/title above each table. Figures are within the text with the heading below the figure. Short communication and Letters to the editor should contain no more than one illustration.

Illustrations should be carefully chosen and only those that make a valid point in the construction of the article will be used. Half tone figures should be submitted as photographs/images

Symbols and numbering should be clear and large enough to remain legible after reduction to fit the width of a single column. Legends for illustrations should be presented separately and not as part of the illustration. Definitions of any abbreviations that appear on the figure should also be provided.

References: A maximum of 40 references is accepted for both review and original articles. Letters to the editor should contain no more than five references. In-text citation begins in the introduction section and references should be in chronological order (see published articles on AJFAND website,
The AJFAND requires use of the number system of referencing. All references, whether quoted directly, paraphrased ideas (Indirect quotation) or acknowledging information obtained from another writer or source, should be documented within the text by numbering [in square brackets]. Try as much as possible to put reference numbers, boxed [ ], at the end of the sentence.



In-text citation
A 1999 United Nations study found increasing incidence of obesity in all developing regions [1].

End reference

  1. Gardner MN, Halweil AO, Lincoln NN, Guba EG, Parry J and JM Nono Introduction to Ophthalmology. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 1989: 188-194.

Note: Consistency and accuracy in referencing is critical and it is the responsibility of the author to ensure this. We encourage checking and double-checking.

Article/Chapter in a book
Use the word “In” before the name of the editors, use editor (s) initials after the name (s).The year should appear at the end followed by a semicolon, the chapter (in bold), full colon and then page numbers eg 1986; 6: 51-53

In-text citation
Over 50 % of the absolute poor in developing countries are found in rural areas [2]. Confirming that poverty still remains a rural phenomenon.

End reference

  1. Spencer N Poverty and Child Health in Less Developed Countries. In: Odoro JM and EM Kimani (Eds). Poverty and Child Health. Oxford, UK and New York, NY: Radcliffe Press, 1996: 74-94.

Articles from journals, magazines and newspapers
Titles of journals or newspapers should be in italics and abbreviated where possible (e.g. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry presented as J. Agric. Food. Chem). The title of the published article should not be underlined.
Newspaper or Wikipedia citations are not accepted for peer reviewed scholarly articles.

In-Text citation
Different standards of food safety between importers and exporters may lead to concerns about food safety of imported food [3].

End reference
3. Lock G and S Jongelin Maximizing Return Rates in School Based Research. Afric. J. Food. Nutri. Sci. 1994; 1: 13-14

The title source and journal abbreviations should conform to those in (Index Medicus), year, volume and inclusive page numbers. Personal communications, unpublished data and manuscripts “in preparation” or “submitted for publication” are unacceptable.

Numbers one to ten are spelt in full unless in conjunction with units (eg 2 ml, 3 mm); numbers above ten appear as 11, 101, 1001. Type out the word percent when the number is spelt out, but use the % symbol when using numbers.
Note that in quoting scientific names, the genus takes a capital letter and the species a small letter. Such names are either underlined or italicized. Foreign words and phrases should not be underlined.

Abbreviations and acronyms can be used but expanded the first time. Example: body mass index (BMI); thereafter the abbreviation/acronym can be used throughout the paper.

Authors should refrain from using acronyms, abbreviations or digits at the beginning of sentences. Also e.g., etc, i.e. are written in full (for example, and others, that is).

Use of first person (I, me, we, us, our ) should be avoided.

Consistency in the type of English used (either American or Imperial) is important. For example, if you begin with the word colour (Imperial) keep it consistent and do not divert to the word color (American) and vice versa. Same to behaviour/behavior, favour/favor and so on.

Peer Review
The AJFAND is a peer-reviewed journal. Every article submitted is first subjected to editorial review. If it is consistent with the editorial policy and conforms to these basic guidelines, it is sent to three knowledgeable and experienced reviewers. A paper is sent to reviewers only when it is in acceptable shape. To avoid unnecessary delays, the author is encouraged to visit the website and to consult the immediate past issue for the format.

If at least two reviewers agree that the paper should be published in AJFAND, it is accepted and either sent immediately for copy-editing or returned to the authors for consideration of the suggestions therein from the reviewers and/or the Editor-in-Chief. If the reviewers do not agree with each other, the paper is either sent for further reviewing or the editor makes a decision. In this case, the author (s) is given a chance to respond to the reviewers’ comments.

Authors are under no obligation to effect changes suggested by the reviewers as long as they can justify their position.

AJFAND work flow chart

Published material in the AJFAND is covered by copyright. Authors transfer all rights to the journal upon publication. The Editor-in-Chief should grant permission for use/reprint of any published material in AJFAND.

AJFAND is open access and published under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 International license (see Copyright Statement on the AJFAND website).


  1. Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals: International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Ann. Intern. Med. 1997; 126: 36 - 47.

Editorial address to which manuscripts should be sent:
The Editor-in-Chief, AJFAND


  1. Hazell BR Managing Agricultural Intensification. “A 2020 Vision for Food, Agriculture, and the Environment.”IFPRI Brief, 2000.
  2. Clayton AN and RNJ Radcliffe Sustainability: A Systems Approach. West View Press; 1996.
  3. Bloom DE and S Sachs Geography, Demography and Economic Growth in Africa. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 2, 1998: 1-16.
  4. Giddens A Globalization. In: Runaway World. The BBC Reith Lectures, 1999.
  5. Eberstadt N Population, Food, and Income: Global Trends in the Twentieth Century. The True State of the World. 1995: 7-48.
  6. FAO. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Agriculture: Towards 2010. FAO, Rome, 1993.
  7. Bongaarts J Population Policy Options in the Developing World. Science 2000; 263: 771-776.
  8. Jaycox VKE Lessons From Two Decades of Involvement in Rural Development in Africa. In: SA Breth (Ed). Overcoming Rural Poverty in Africa. Geneva: Center for Applied Studies in International Negotiations 1999: 30-35.
  9. Amartya S Poverty and Famines. An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1981.
  10. FAO. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.The State of Food and Agriculture. FAO, Rome, 2001.
  11. World Bank. Assessing Aid: What Works, What Doesn’t and Why. Washington, D.C. Oxford University Press, 2001.
  12. Gathiru K Soil Fertility and Productivity Status in East Africa region. In: MM Tenywa, MA Bekunda and A Lufafa (Eds). Participatory Soil Fertility and Land Improvement in Uganda.Challenges and Opportunities. 2001.
  13. Foster AM Assessment of Socio-economic Benefits of Sasakawa Global 2000 Interventions in Uganda. 2001.
  14. Eicher CK Institutions and the African Farmer. Third Distinguished Economist Lecture.CIMMYT Economics Program, 1999.
  15. Waggoner P How Much Land Can Ten Billion People Spare for Nature? Council for Science and Technology, Ames, Iowa, 1994.

CHECKLIST [Self-Administered] - Revised on 26 August 2020

Note: This checklist should be submitted with the manuscript
[Please communicate with us electronically and send your manuscript as an attachment-MS WORD]

Title of paper: ______________________________________________
Author(s): ________________________________________________
Name and address of corresponding author: _______________________________________
Consent of co-author(s): _____________________________________
Name and address of co-author(s): _____________________________

(a) Abstract: 300 to 400 (for review and original articles)
(b) 3000 - 4000 for review/original articles (excluding abstract and references)
(c) No more than 1000 for personal communication:
(d) Not exceeding 500 for Letter to the Editor




(a) Numbered correctly as cited within the text and in square brackets
(b) In-text and end-text citation consistent
(c) A maximum of 40 references for both original and review articles and written as per AJFAND guidelines
(d) Not exceeding five for Letter to the Editor
(e) Key words must be 8-10



Figures and tables
(a) Cited consecutively in the text
(b) Are captions appropriate?
(c) Tables placed at the end, but part of the text
(d) Figures placed within the text
(e) A maximum of eight figures for original/review articles
(f) A maximum of eight tables for original/review articles
(g) Definitions of abbreviations that appear on tables and figures provided
(h) Symbols and numbering clear and large enough



Category of article clear (i.e. original or review article, Letter to the Editor, personal communication, commentary)

*Indicate who is funding the project: .................................

Corresponding author signature: .................................

Downloable version (MS Word)

We strive for top quality output and, therefore, expect the author to take full responsibility over the quality of the article. Thus manuscripts not conforming to the self-administered checklist will be returned. Please, attach the checklist to your manuscript.

Example of Consent Letter/Email

Consent letter example

AJFAND Guidance for Reviewers
For authors as well:

Ethical Considerations
Any author whose manuscript is associated with a study on humans must supply evidence that the appropriate Ethics Committee was satisfied and approved the study. The study itself must provide information in detail on how  consent was sought and received from the study subjects of their caregivers in the case of children.


The review process involves sending papers to at least two experts for review. Thereafter, any potentially acceptable paper may also be sent to our statistical adviser.

The manuscript is a confidential document. Please do not discuss this document with anybody else. Any communication with the author of the manuscript must be done through the Journal Editorial office.

The referee provides advice to the Editor-in-Chief, who makes the final decision, together with members of a well selected panel and the newly constituted Oversight Editorial Board. We will normally pass on your comments (anonymously, of course) to the author.

As a practice, the author and the reviewer are not known to each other unless otherwise requested by either party. In any case, such disclosure and communication is facilitated by the Editor-in-Chief of AJFAND.

Even if we do not accept a paper, we would like to pass on constructive comments that might help the author to improve the paper, or in preparing a fresh paper. For this reason, please give detailed comments (with references, where appropriate) that will help the Editor-in-Chief to make a decision on the paper and the authors to improve it. Send detailed comments separately and make your recommendations and any confidential comments to the Editor-in-Chief on a covering letter, by electronic means. Corrections can also be made on the actual text itself, and highlighted for the benefit of the author and the editor.

The broad aspects that we would like comments on include:

The focus must be research and development linkages; is this the case here?

Originality: (truly original or known to you through foreign or specialist literature)
- Originality is our major criterion for case reports
- Scientific reliability
- Overall design of the study
- The research undertaken-adequately described and the conditions defined

- Adequately described?
- Appropriate

- Relevant to problem posed?
- Credible
- Well presented (including use of tables and figures)?

Interpretation and conclusions:
- Warranted by the data?
- Reasonable speculation?
- Is the message clear?

- Up to date and relevant?
- Has the most current literature been used?
- Any glaring omissions?
- As per AJFAND requirements?

Importance of the work:
- Suitability for AJFAND and overall recommendation.
- Appropriate for general readership or more appropriate for special journal?
- If not acceptable, how can the paper be made so?

Other points:
- Ethical aspects
- Need for statistical assessment
- Presentation (including writing style)
- NEW: Use only 3 significant figures (i.e. 58.4 - 59.5%)

 Editorial address to which manuscripts should be sent:
The Editor-in-Chief, AJFAND

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